Image Processing is an area of scientific experimental work, done on images (RGB or Gray Scale) to propose a solution to a given problem. Basically developing a brain (computer) that can learn and train himself to perform tasks using eyes (camera). It means minimum or no use of electronic sensors.
What is Digital Image Processing ?
Any digital image can be defined as a two-dimensional function, f(x,y), where x & y are spatial coordinates. The amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates (x,y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point.
We can call an image a digital image if amplitude values of f and values of x & y are all finite, discrete quantities.
Every digital image is composed of a finite number of elements. Each of these finite elements has a particular location and value. These elements can be referred to as pixels (the term used most widely) or picture elements or image elements or pels. In Digital Image Processing, digital images are processed by computers to gain output as desired by algorithms.
Images contain more information then text. Vision is the most advanced of human senses and it plays a vital role in human perception. We humans are limited to visual band of electromagnetic spectrum but imaging machines are not, they can cover almost an entire electromagnetic spectrum from gamma waves to radio waves.
Machines can operate on images generated from ultrasound, electron microscopy, infrared and computer-generated images but humans can't ! Thus digital image processing has a wide & varied field of application. There are no pre-defined boundaries where you can say image processing ends here and other related areas (such as computer vision) begins there. There is a thin line of difference where we can say who is who.
In Image Processing both I/P's and O/P's are images.
In Computer Vision it's ultimate goal is to use computational power to emulate (copy or mimic or mirror) human vision.
If you are trying to emulate human intelligence using computers, you call it Artificial Intelligence.
The area of image understanding or image analysis comes between image processing and computer vision.
A useful paradigm in this continuum is to consider computerized processes in three categories.